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地区:宁夏
  类型:NBA
  时间:2022-07-04 18:24
剧情简介
  以下为英文全文:  Q:What‘syouropiniononthecurrentworldeconomicdevelopment?WhatchangesdoyouthinkCOVID-19hasbroughttotheworld?Willitchangethetrendoftheworldeconomy?  A:COVID-19hasdrawnattentiontothecostoffailingtoadequatelyaddressobviousgrayrhinoriskslikethethreatofpandemicsandweaknessesinaccesstohealthcare.Italreadyhascutshort-termeconomicgrowthforecastsandhasimposedanuncertaintytaxontheglobaleconomy.Forcountriesthatmovedquicklytogetthenovelcoronavirusundercontrol,theoutlookisbrighter.ButwithCOVID-19nowhereclosetoundercontrolinacountryasbigandimportanttotheglobaleconomyastheUnitedStates,theglobaleconomyisgoingtosufferlongerthanitwouldhaveifmoreAmericans-bothpolicymakersandindividualcitizens—hadtakentheriskmoreseriously.  Untilwehavevaccinesandacriticalmassofpeoplehasreceivedthem,theviruswillbeaweightkeepingtheglobaleconomyfromatruerebound.  Wewillcontinuetoseesupply-chaininterruptions,mostdisturbinglyincludingfood.Wewillcontinuetoseeincreasinginequality,alongwithrisingsocialinstabilityincountriesliketheUnitedStates.  Thisinequalityalsowillbeadragoneconomiesbecausethemoremoneyisconcentratedinthehandsofthesuper-wealthy,thelessthereisfortheleast-welloff,whoneeditthemost,toconsumeandkeepeconomieshumming.  Andaslongasthereareeconomictroubles,toomanypolicymakerswillbetemptedtopursuebeggar-thy-neighborpoliciesontrade,climateandglobalcooperationingeneral.  Lowinterestrateswillpostponedebtcrisesforcompanies,individuals,andcountries,buthighdebtlevelsremainadangerfortheglobaleconomyespeciallyifgrowthdoesnotpickupmorequickly.  Q:SinceCOVID-19,U.S.stockshaverisenrapidly,whatdoyouthinkoftheU.Sstockmarket?  A:Putpolitely,theUSstockmarketisadisasterwaitingtohappen.Pricesarewayoutoftouchwitheconomicreality,evenaftertherecentlosses.AndjustaswesawwiththeDutchTulipMania,eventuallyinvestorswillrealizethattheunderlyingvalueofthepapertheyholddoesnotjustifyitsprice.Someonesaidtomerecentlythatthecurrenteconomyremindsthemof2007,whenthedeepcracksinthehousingmarketalreadywereshowingbutthedominoeffecthadnotyetrippledthroughtheeconomyandmarkets.That’swhatitfeelsliketodaytometoo.Justlikeinthesubprimecrisis,manyofthepeoplehurtwillbethe“littleguys.”TheUSstockmarkethasattractedmanysmall,socalled“retail”investors,manyofwhomusedtheirgovernmentstimuluscheckstoinvestinpennystocks.Theyaretakingbigrisksdespitethefactthatinstitutionalinvestorshavemoreinformationandthepowertomoveagainstthem.  Q:What‘syourviewontherelationshipbetweenU.S.andChina,isthereariskofdecoupling?  A:Iamdeeplyconcernedthatwearealreadyseeingdecoupling,particularlyaroundtechnology.Businessesdonotwantdecoupling,butthecurrentadministrationintheUnitedStateshasmadeChinathebogeymantodistractAmericansfromitsownfailings.IhopeandbelievethatthenextUSadministrationwilltakeamuchmoreconstructiveapproach.  Infact,thecurrentpolicieshavehurttheUSfarmorethanChinaontheinvestmentside,asforeigndirectinvestmentfromChinaintotheUnitedStateshasplummetedbutU.S.investmentintoChinaroseforthefirsthalfoftheyear.Butit’snotjustamatterofourtwocountries:thewholeworldisaffected.Decouplingintechnologywillresultinaninefficient,two-tracksystem.TheBetamaxversusVCRcompetitionforthevideorecordingmarketinthe1970sand1980swasnotaconstructivecompetition.Whatweareseeingtodayisfarworse,especiallysincetechnologyismostusefulwhenitiscompatibleglobally.Ialsoamconcernedbecausetheclosercommercialtiesarebetweennations,thelowertheoddsofgeopoliticalconflicts.  Q:Whatarethe“GrayRhinos”youseesofar?  A:Ihavebeguntohesitatetoanswerthisquestionbecausetheconceptworksbestwhenpeopleidentifygrayrhinosforthemselves.ButingeneralIhavebeenfocusingmyattentiononatrioofbigglobalpolicyissuesthatarecloselyrelatedtoeachother:climatechange,financialfragilities,andinequality.Centralbanksandinvestorshaveincreasinglysoundedthewarningthatclimatechangeposeshugefinancialriskstorealestatevaluesincoastalanddroughtandwildfire-proneareasandthusinturntoinsurers,supplychains,businesses,andmunicipalfinances,creatingahugepotentialdominoeffect.Becausewehavewaitedsolongtoact,thewithdrawalofinvestmentfromfossilfuelindustrieswillbesteeperandcreateabiggershockthanitwouldhaveotherwise.Financialfragilities–inparticularassetbubblesthataresuckingmoneyoutoftherealeconomy—worseninequalityanddragdowneconomicgrowthwhichinturnworsensfinancialfragilities.Andclimatechangeworsensinequalitybecausetheplacesthathavecontributedtheleasttogreenhousegasesarethemostvulnerabletoextremeweatherandhavetheleastresourcestoprotectthemselvesorrebuild.Climatechangealsoisthawingpermafrostandreleasingmorepathogens.  Q:HowdoyouthinkofRMB‘sinternationalization?  A:Therearetrade-offstotheinternationalizationoftheRMB.Onthepositiveside,itmakesmanytransactionssimpler.Andhavinganadditionalalternativereservecurrencytothedollarisattractive.Butinternationalizationalsomeansgivingupalotofcontrolovermonetarypolicyandinturncouldcreatepotentialinternaleconomicshocks.Inwhateverdecisionsaremade,it’simportanttoconsiderthewinnersandlosersandmakesurethatthosewhoaremostvulnerabletounintendedconsequencesareprotected.  Q:Chinahasnowproposeda‘dualloop’strategywhichfocusesontheinternalloop,whatdoyouthinkofit?  A:Domesticdemandandconsumptionaresoimportanttoastrongeconomy.Stimulatingdomesticdemand--ietheinternalloop—haslongbeenachallengeforChinaandIamhappytoseeitgettingpriorityattention.Balancinginvestmentandconsumptionsuccessfullywilldeterminehowsuccessfulthepolicyis.Onewayofincreasingconsumptionistoprovideabetterriskumbrellatopeopleloweronthesocio-economicladder.Becauseyouarestartingfromalowerbaseandanyadditionaldiscretionaryincomehasabiggerimpact,youcanincreaseconsumptionmorequicklythanwithhigherincomepopulations.Ifpeoplearenotasworriedaboutcoveringemergencyhealthcarecostsorsavingforretirementorhavingtohelptheirparentsinretirement,theycanpumpmoremoneyintotheeconomy.Itwouldalsobeworthconsideringatargetedbasicincomeforpeopleinindustriesthatarebeingdisruptedandmaybetoooldtoinvestingainingnewskillsorareyoungenoughthattheycanaffordtoinvesttimeandenergyinnewskillsbutneedfinancialhelp.Thistrickle-upstrategywouldhelpbusinessesandinturninvestors,soeveryonewouldbenefit,unliketrickle-downstrategiesthatneverreallytrickledowntoeveryone.  Q:ThereshapingoftheglobalindustrialchainisnowwidelydiscussedinChina,what‘syouropiniononit?  A:Definitelyweareseeingsupplychainchanges:diversificationoflocations,re-thinkingofthe“justintime”leansupplychainmentalityaspeoplerealizethathavingextrainventoryonhand.Idonotsupporteffortstoraisetradebarriers.Atthesametime,Ithinkthatfocusingonregionalsupplychainsmakessensefromaclimateperspective.Transportinggoodsallaroundtheworldcreatesatremendouscarbondebt,sothelessdistancethingstravelandthesmallercarbonfootprint,thebetter.Whilerecognizingthatcalculatingcarbonfootprintsofgoodsiscomplicated,Iwouldliketoseeallproductsincludeatleastaroughestimatesothatpeoplecanchooseandrewardcompaniesthatreducetheirenvironmentalimpact.  Q:Chinaisformulatingthenextfive-yearplan(2021-2025),canyougivesomesuggestions?  A:Thenextfive-yearplanshouldmakesuretoprioritizeaddressingthethreebiggrayrhinosImentioned:addressingfinancialfragilities,theclimatecrisis,andinequality.Alloftheseareriskpreventionpolicydirectionsthatalsosupportgrowth.Providingbroadaccesstocreditwhilediscouragingoverindebtednesswillsupportqualitygrowth.Climatemitigationmeasureswillspurinnovation,createjobs,andultimatelycanreducefinancialfragilitiesbyslowingclimatechangeandtheeconomicimpactofextremeweather.Bothwillhelptoaddressinequality,butbyreducinginequalitythroughbettersupporttovulnerablepopulationsChinawillstrengthenthefoundationoftheeconomy.  Q:CanyougivesomeadvicetotheyoungeconomistsinChina?  A:Don‘tjustwriteforothereconomists;thinkaboutwaystorelateyourworktotherealworld,notjusttheory,andtocommunicateitinanaccessibleway.It’ssoimportanttodevelopeconomicliteracy,riskliteracy,andpolicyliteracyamongthepublic.Whenapopulationunderstandsthedifficulttrade-offsthatpolicymakersmustmake,itiseasiertocommunicateandimplementthosepolicieswithlessopposition.
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